I attended the mini conference ‘Open Badges: what, why and how’ at the University of Dundee on 19th June. Dundee is working with the Universities of Abertay and Aberdeen, under the aegis of the QAA Scotland Transitions Enhancement Theme, to explore the use of Open Badges. The focus of the project is on transitions from university to employment and the use of badges to recognise employability skills through extra- and co-curricular activity. The University of Abertay already has some really interesting experience of using this approach with their LLB students. The conference also included presentations from Grainne Hamilton on her work at Digital Me and Doug Belshaw who looked at the future of Open Badges in a talk titled ‘Open Badges in Higher Education: 2.0 infinity and beyond!’.
Still on the theme of transitions the Open University’s suite of Badged Open Courses (BOCS) on OpenLearn. There are now seventeen available. The majority are concerned with supporting transitions from informal to formal learning. However, the latest addition to the collection is ‘Succeeding in postgraduate study’ aimed at supporting the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate study. Whilst this free, openly licensed course was written by the OU, it will be of interest to colleagues across Scottish higher education and applicable to any student making the transition to postgraduate study in Scotland. The selection of Badged Open Courses on OpenLearn Create also continues to grow, including the OEPS collection.
Towards the end of February I spoke to Keith Quinn, Learning & Development Manager (Digital Learning) and Rob Stewart, Learning and Development Adviser at the Scottish Social Services Council offices in Dundee.
More than 200,000 people work in social services across Scotland; the workforce includes social care workers, social workers, social work students and early years workers. SSSC are responsible for registering the workforce, making sure that they meet the standards set out in the SSSC Codes of Practice. As part of its support for the professional development of the social services workforce SSSC has developed the SSSC Open Badges website.
Currently 107 different badges are available through the platform. The underlying pedagogic model is based on using badges to recognise situated learning. Badges are awarded for reflecting and acting on learning not simply for attendance or participation. Assessment and verification of reflective activity is carried out by employers, line managers and sometimes by SSSC staff. Social care organisations can register with the system and are allocated a unique code. Learners can then submit the code for their particular employment and will be assessed by someone with knowledge of their context. This decentralisation allows the system to operate at scale, SSSC sample to ensure consistency of standards.
One of the challenges for SSSC is developing a culture in which online learning is seen as engaging and relevant. They are aware that many learners identify online with tick box approaches and so in developing the use of badges that recognise reflection and reward active engagement they are ‘trying to break what’s in people’s heads about just clicking …’. They have deliberately avoided quiz-based assessment. In part this is a challenge about changing perceptions, however, it is also about supporting learners to develop their skills. Support is offered for reflective writing but learning can also be evidenced in other forms, for example using video. The learning and development team are also actively engaged in supporting and modeling good practice in digital learning design.
Organisations can use the SSSC platform to badge their learning materials. Currently ten are doing so and the figure is likely to rise to around fifty in the next twelve months. To date 830 badges have been awarded and the number is rising rapidly.
If you have an interest in professional development and in the use of micro credentials for professional learning I’d strongly recommend browsing the SSSC site. The short video explaining what digital badges are and can do is particularly good.
Pete Cannell for the OEPS team
by Anna Page (OEPS project)
The annual OpenEdConference, this year with the title “The Impact of Open” is taking place in Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada on 18-20 November 2015. The OEPS project is presenting under the theme “Designing and using open pedagogies that leverage the 5R permissions of OER”, with the following title and abstract:
Supporting organisations adopt open education practices (OEP) via cross-sector partnerships to enable the design and use of open materials is the purpose of the Opening Educational Practices in Scotland project (OEPS). It builds on previous experiences of collaborative partnership working (Macintyre, 2013, Cannell & Macintyre, 2013). Although Open Educational Resources (OER) could be transformative and widen access to higher education (D’Antoni, 2013) this promise hasn’t been widely realised, with many unaware of the potential benefits of OER and most MOOC users already HE qualified (Edinburgh University, 2013). OEPS endorses the Open Scotland Declaration (http://declaration.openscot.net/) which encourages organisations, teachers and learners to adopt OER.
OEPS is extending the 5Rs of OER (Wiley, 2014) to the wider sector of HE, FE and beyond via partnerships between HE learning design professionals and Scottish organisations with specialist expertise to share but no pedagogic knowledge to create robust OER. It does this via a growing peer support network, workshops, pilot schemes and an online hub for sharing good practice. This supports OER and OEP concept exploration and the extent to which organisations feel able to share resources they develop for the benefit of communities of learners.
OEPS is facilitating more development of OpenLearn Works where users can share OER so learners can retain, reuse, revise, remix and redistribute resources at any time. The platform encourages users to share all resources via a CC BY NC SA licence at the very least. It also supports badged open courses.
This presentation focusses on some of the collaborative partnership-created OER exemplars, some using badging, issues raised during creation, and the first 3 months use of the Opening Educational Practices hub.
Cannell, Pete and Macintyre, Ronald (2013). Reflections on work and learning and flexible curriculum. In: International Enhancement Themes Conference: Enhancement and Innovation in Higher Education, 11-13 June 2013, Glasgow, UK, pp. 4–12. http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/38321
D’Antoni, S. (2013) ‘Open Educational Resources: Access to Knowledge – A Personal Reflection’ in McGreal, R., Kinuthia, W. and Marshall, S. (eds) (2013) Open Educational Resources: Innovation, Research and Practice. Vancouver: The Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University https://oerknowledgecloud.org/sites/oerknowledgecloud.org/files/pub_PS_OER-IRP_web.pdf#page=153
Edinburgh University (2013) MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 Report http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6683
Macintyre, Ronald (2013). Openness and practice: innovations through openness in partnership. In: International Enhancement Themes Conference: Enhancement and Innovation in Education, 11-13 June 2013, Glasgow, UK, pp. 90–96. http://oro.open.ac.uk/id/eprint/38320
Wiley, D (2014) ‘The Access Compromise and the 5th R’, on Iterating toward openness (5 March 2014) http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3221
The slides can be viewed at http://www.slideshare.net/OEPScotland/oeps-presentation-at-opened15-designing-and-using-open-pedagogies-for-the-5rs-the-opening-educational-practices-in-scotland-experience
‘Taking Care of Business’: The Realities of Badging
by John Casey, City of Glasgow College
I facilitated 2 workshop sessions on the ‘reality of badging’ as part of the Opening Educational Practices in Scotland Advisory Forum that happened in Edinburgh on Monday 13th October. For those of you who are new to the idea of using digital ‘badges’ to evidence learning, check out the weblinks at the bottom of this post. It was a fascinating day, starting with an overview of the project followed by a keynote ‘big picture’ view of the state of open education by Prof. Martin Weller from the Open University entitled ‘The Battle for Open’. In his talk Martin argued that there were a number of competing narratives at work about the future shape of open education.
A key recurring narrative Martin identified was one aligned with commercial interest that pushed the idea of a ‘crisis’ in our (public) education systems to which the answer was invariably a technical and commercial fix. While stressing that he had no objection to private companies supplying services to the education sector (they always have done), Martin reminded us that the potential global education market was estimated at being many trillions of dollars and it is naïve to think that open education is somehow a ‘commerce free’ zone.
As it happens, Martin’s observation were borne out in some of the discussions about badges, where people in the community education sector had been using commercial badge services (notably Credly.com) and were now coming to think again about the long-term ‘business’ of issuing, earning and using badges – hence the title of this post. In many ways this is a good thing and shows that the use of badges is maturing and moving from a technical innovation at the edges of education to the mainstream.
Our discussions on badges started with a ‘reality check’ session that asked what the participants knew about badges. Most were already aware but some had not heard of badges before. So, in each session Doug Belshaw of the Mozilla foundation and Fionnuala Carmichael, Manager of JISC RSC Scotland provided a quick overview of badges. In essence badges are a digital format that can record and share people’s learning achievements (in the form of a graphic ‘png’ image file that also has readable information about the learning embedded inside). Badges were originally developed by the American Mozilla charitable foundation and you can find more information at this link http://openbadges.org.
One thing that became clear in the discussion was that take-up, practice and understanding was widely different – natural in such a new development. It was striking that the two main uses of badges was seen in (i) accrediting informal learning such as work experience and so called ‘soft skills’ with a view to entering formal education and (ii) of evidencing professional development. There was little sign of educational institutions planning to use badges in conjunction with their formal certificated offerings, with some participants expressing disquiet at that prospect. In connection with this there followed a discussion about the innate conservatism of our education institutions and the long known problem of getting agreement to the accreditation of prior learning. It is worth recording that a representative of the SQA (Scottish Qualifications Authority) was strongly in favour of FE colleges using badges to ‘enrich’ their formal qualifications and provide additional evidence to employers about a candidate’s skills, experience and employability.
It was suggested that getting institutional professional and educational development units to use badges to accredit their own courses for teachers would be a powerful way of spreading awareness and acceptance of the concept, a participant from Glasgow Caledonian University describing their use of badges and the development of a toolkit. In fact the two main VLEs (Virtual Learning Environment) platforms in use in Scotland (Moodle and Blackboard) already have badge-making engines built in and ready to go. So, perhaps, the obstacles to this are not technical but rather cultural?
A striking and encouraging example of the use of badges for professional development was described by a participant from Abertay University who was working with the Law Society of Scotland to accredit and accept the use of 4 badges to provide annual mandatory CPD (continuing professional development) courses for lawyers. As with the case of teachers described above, examples of the uses of badges for accrediting professional development in this way can only be a good thing for driving the acceptance, credibility and adoptions of badges in general.
A theme that emerged strongly was how badges (by being linked to individuals, learning, certification and institutions) neatly act as a ‘lightening rod’ to highlight many of the issues facing education and training as we move further into the digital realm. Examples of this were about the long-term ownership and management of the badges, currently the Mozilla Foundation provides a long-term place (called the ‘backpack) where individuals can ‘park’ their badges and manage who can see them. But Doug Belshaw, from Mozilla, observed that the expectation was that institutions and commercial providers would provide their own systems, this led to some discussion about the possibility of Scottish solutions.
Another lightening-rod issue related to the use badges was how they highlight the challenges relating to ‘digital literacy’ at both a personal and institutional level. At its simplest this means how we manage and control our digital ‘stuff’ over a lifetime, something we all struggle to do. On a more personal level is the issue of how we use badges to support and manage our different online ‘personas’ – both professional and personal.
So, to sum up, it looks like badges are here to stay, although there is much more to be done. It was good to see a diverse attendance, especially from the community sector. As these sessions were part of an advisory forum, here are some ‘take-home’ messages for the Opening Educational Practices in Scotland project to think about as it makes plans for the future:
- It would be useful to provide a library of case studies to help individuals and institutions make sense of badges and see how they might best make use of them – both in ‘plain English’ and in technical terms
- Develop and provide guidelines for dealing with public bodies and private companies supplying ‘paid for’ services related to badges (including privacy issues)
- Provide (or link to) toolkits and guidance for adopting badges in different sectors (Schools, FE, HE, Community Education, Commercial and Industrial etc.)
- An ‘aggregation’ service or ‘index’ that links to the UK and global open education initiatives using badges. This would be useful for newcomers, researchers and practitioners alike to help situate their work with badges in the diverse wider open education context.
Useful links and further information
There is a JISC RSC toolkit on badges and JISC RSC Scotland convenes the Open Badges in Scottish Education Group (OBSEG) with members from schools, further and higher education institutions, educational agencies including the Scottish Qualifications Authority and Education Scotland, professional bodies, employer bodies, national and local government, Open Badge projects such as DigitalMe’s Badge the UK and Mozilla. For more see below:
The Mozilla badges website: http://openbadges.org.
Jisc Badge System Design Toolkit:
JISC Open Badges in Scottish Education Group: